カテゴリー別アーカイブ: LL.M.

【LL.M. Application Process】Columbia Law School

前回(4/21)の投稿に続き、Columbia Law Schoolの出願サイトを確認していきたいと思います。https://www.law.columbia.edu/admissions/llm/apply-llm-program

Holistic review. No one factor on your application is more important than another; we approach each application individually and holistically, and carefully review each component.

  • Holisticは「全体の」という意味を表します。各書類やテストスコアは入学審査においてそれぞれの役割を持ちます。たとえば、TOEFLスコアは英語力/やコミュニケーション力を入学審査官へ伝えるための効果的なツールとなるものの学力は指し示しません。そのため、テスト以外の各書類(Application Form, CV/Resume, Essay, Letter of Recommendation, Transcript)の役割を把握してください。

We do not have quotas by country or area of practice. Our process seeks candidates with the strongest credentials representing diverse backgrounds, areas of the world, and legal practice.

  • ここで述べている”the strongest credentials”を証明するため、テストスコア、各出願書類のクオリティーを高めることが求められます。

Academic strength is essential. Columbia is first and foremost an academic institution. We look for factors in your application that indicate that you will be able to keep up with the academic discourse at Columbia, including your prior academic transcripts and letters of recommendation. (This does not mean you should worry about a mistake you made during your first law degree; in fact, what you have learned from your mistakes is helpful to our process.)

  • 学力を表す書類として成績表と推薦状について言及しています。特に推薦状の内容は「構成」、「表現」、「具体性」といったチェックポイントを設けてはいかがでしょうか?さらにはLL.M.課程で活躍するに際して必要なアカデミックスキル(例:分析力や問題解決力)なども把握しておきましょう。

Work experience matters. Most LL.M. students have several years of work experience when they enroll, and we strongly encourage applicants to obtain at least one year of full-time, post-law school work experience prior to applying. Experience gives you a better sense of what you want from your LL.M. experience and enhances your ability to participate in classroom and extracurricular activities.

  • Essayでは上述箇所にあるWhat you want form your LL.M. experienceに対する自分の回答を述べます。さらにはLL.M.をColumbiaで取得したい理由も同時に考えていきましょう。

Candidates in the final year of their first law degree will only be accepted under exceptional circumstances. If you are in this category, your personal statement must demonstrate that admission to the program would enable you to realize an immediate and specific career objective you otherwise could not obtain if you waited at least one additional year.

上述箇所のimmediate and specific career objectiveを考える際には、Columbia卒業後に就く仕事、職位、役割、責務、そしてその仕事を通じて達成したいことも併せて考えましょう。

English language skills are essential. As lawyers, you are advocates first and foremost. Columbia Law School has the highest Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) minimum for a reason: We want you to engage and perform at a level commensurate with your native English speaking peers both in and out of the classroom.

総合スコアも大切ですが、特にListeningとSpeakingセクションのスコアバランスにも注意を払ってください。

【LL.M. Application Deadline】Columbia Law School

先日当ブログにて紹介しましたHarvard LL.M. Programに続き、Columbia Law Schoolでも2020-21年シーズンの出願締め切り日が発表されました。
https://www.law.columbia.edu/admissions/llm/apply-llm-program

〇 Early Review Program(早期出願用締め切り日)

Applicants for admission to our 2021-2022 LL.M. Program, except those who are in the final year of their first law degree and reapplicants who were not originally granted admission, have the option of applying through the Early Review Program. The advantage of applying early is that you will have a decision by late December. We encourage early applications from those who feel they have compiled their strongest possible application by November 1, 2020. To be considered under the Early Review Program, you must:

  1. Submit your online application by November 1, 2020;
  2. Submit your transcripts, TOEFL scores, and letters of recommendation to LSAC at least one week in advance of the November 1 deadline so that they have time to process your full Credential Assembly Service (CAS) report and forward it to us during the Early Review period; and
  3. Specify that you wish to be considered for early review by answering “yes” to the Early Review question in the “Application Deadlines” section of this application.

ここでは締め切り日を遵守することに加え、TOEFLスコアの提出も11月1日に間に合うよう時間的に余裕を持って対応するよう指示が出されています。そうしますと、10月20日前後には出願に必要なスコアを揃えておく必要が出てきます。

If you do not meet the above criteria, we will automatically defer your application for consideration as part of the regular admission cycle. If you have not taken the TOEFL by November 1, 2020, you will automatically be considered in the regular admission cycle; no exceptions will be made.

たとえ、11月1日の早期締め切り日に間に合わなかったとしても慌てる必要はありません。出願書類を提出することが大切ではなく、合格するにふさわしいクオリティーに満ちた出願書類とスコアを準備することを優先して考えていきましょう。

We will provide a decision for early applicants by the end of December. Applicants will be admitted, rejected, or deferred to the regular admission cycle. If you are admitted through the Early Review Program, you will not be required to withdraw your applications to other LL.M. programs. Admitted candidates will be given a deadline upon admission to confirm their intention to matriculate.

Regular Application Deadline

The Columbia online application, available through LSAC, must be submitted by December 18, 2020. All application materials for the CAS report, including supporting documents, transcripts, and letters of recommendation, must be postmarked to LSAC by December 18, 2020. Applicants who are required to submit a TOEFL score (see our Application Components page for more information) must take the test no later than December 18, 2020 in order to be considered for admission for the 2021-2022 LL.M. Program.

must take the test no later than December 18と書かれていることから、締め切り日以降にテストを受験してスコアを差し替える戦略は適用することはできません。

Admission decisions are made on a rolling basis, in most cases no later than late April. Rolling admissions means that we evaluate applications randomly; the date you submitted your application often has no bearing on when you will receive a decision. Some candidates will have a decision in early January, others in late April. (If you submit your application well before the December 18 deadline, for example, you will not necessarily have an earlier decision.) If you have not yet received a decision, it most likely means that the Committee simply has not yet reviewed your application (so you should not worry!). We strive to give every candidate a decision by the end of April.

今年はコロナウィルスの状況でテストの受験が制限される機会が増えております。テスト対策を継続することも大切ですが、しっかりとした受験計画を立て、レジュメ、エッセイ、推薦状といった出願書類を早い時期から準備していくことをお勧めいたします。

LL.M.教育と起業家思考:Duke University

下記の記事ではアメリカのLL.M.教育の中で起業家思考の醸成に対する必要性が専門家の意見と共に紹介されています。
https://llm-guide.com/articles/why-every-llm-student-needs-entrepreneurial-thinking

Duke University Law SchoolのLaw & Entrepreneurship Programのディレクターを務めるエリカ・ビュエル教授は次のように述べています。

多くのスタートアップ企業では弁護士を信頼できるビジネスのアドバイザーとして捉える動きが見られます。これも起業が盛んなアメリカならではの特徴の一つと言えます。こうした状況背景をもとに、弁護士は時としてビジネスアドバイザー、経営者の相談を受けるカウンセラーそして事業の問題を解決する立場といった様々な立場を担うことが求められているとも述べています。

Duke University Law Schoolでは、弁護士はスタートアップ・ベンチャーズ・クリニック(プログラム)で起業家の代理を務めるといった実地経験を積むことができ、起業家は自らのアイデアを商業化する方法について無料で法的アドバイスを受けることができます。

さらにLaw Schoolの学生は、同じ大学の一部であるFuqua School of Businessで、ベンチャーキャピタルの資金調達に関するコースやイノベーションのコースを受講できます。このように他学部(大学院)からオファーされているコースを履修し卒業単位としてカウントする制度をCross-Registration Systemと言います。LL.M. Programのカリキュラムを確認することはもちろん重要ですが、ビジネススクールを始め、環境学大学院や公共政策大学院など、LL.M.取得後のキャリアパスと照らし合わせて独自の履修計画を作り上げてはいかがでしょうか?

【2021 LL.M. Application Deadline】Harvard Law School

Harvard Law Schoolが2021年入学用の出願情報を発表しました。https://hls.harvard.edu/dept/graduate-program/llm-application-deadlines-and-materials/

The application for the LL.M. class beginning in August 2021 will open in September 2020. The application deadline for the LL.M. class beginning in August 2021 is December 1, 2020, at 11:59 p.m., U.S. Eastern time.

In addition to submitting the online LL.M. application by the deadline, applicants must make sure that any other required documents (e.g., transcripts, TOEFL results) are sent out in time for delivery to our office on or before the deadline. Please note that the application deadline will be strictly observed. It is your responsibility to make certain that all required materials reach the Graduate Program office by the deadline.

Application Materials

  • Online application form
  • CV/Résumé
  • Personal statement, parts (A) and (B)
  • Transcript(s) (including diplomas for all degrees that have been received)
  • Recommendations (at least two)
  • Official TOEFL report (if applicable; please note that we do not accept MyBest™ TOEFL score reports)*
  • Financial Aid application (if applicable)
  • Application fee of US$85**

注):MyBestスコアの取り扱いは各ロースクールによって異なります。出願要綱に関するサイトで確認できない場合は、Admissions Officeにお問い合わせください。

The LL.M. Class of 2019-20のProfileは以下のリンクよりご確認いただけます。
https://hls.harvard.edu/dept/graduate-program/llm-profiles/

  • 182 students, 98% of them are international
  • 82% have 2 or more years of practice or teaching/advanced studies experience
  • 20% hold advanced degrees
  • 61 countries / jurisdictions represented from Argentina to Zimbabwe
  • 22 Fulbright Scholars
  • 16 Supreme or Constitutional Court clerks
  • 18 full or part-time law teachers
  • 8 judges and 7 current or former prosecutors

English Proficiency Examination

  1. For the internet-based test (iBT), we require a total score of at least 100, with at least 25 in each of the four subsections.
  2. We do not accept IELTS scores in place of TOEFL scores.
  3. We do not accept MyBest™ TOEFL score reports.

https://hls.harvard.edu/dept/graduate-program/llm-admissions-faq/#faq-3-3

MyBestスコアに加え、IELTS Scoreを受け付けるLL.M.プログラムはMinimum Scoreが関連サイトに掲載されますのでその都度ご確認ください。

Personal Statement
The Personal Statement is an essential component of your application. It provides an opportunity for you to present your ideas and demonstrate your writing ability to the Committee on Graduate Studies. Please limit your statement to no more than 1,500 words —anything exceeding this limit will be disregarded. Please note that footnotes do not count towards the overall word limit as long as they are limited to providing sources and citations

https://hls.harvard.edu/content/uploads/2019/11/UPDATED-Sample-LLM-Application-2020.pdf

Your Personal Statement should address both of the following questions specifically, with Part (A) constituting at least half of the total length:

(A) Briefly describe either an important issue in your field of interest or a current legal problem facing a particular country, region, or the world, and then propose a theoretical framework or a legal analysis or strategy to address this issue.

(B) Please tell us something about yourself — in particular, why you wish to pursue an LL.M. degree at Harvard and how doing so connects with what you have done in the past and what you plan to do in the future.Please follow the instructions on the Personal Statement page of the online application to upload your Personal Statement. Note that your Personal Statement must be uploaded and submitted with the rest of your application. We will not accept any Personal Statement sent to us separately from the online application.

【2020年入学用締め切り日】: Columbia University LL.M. Program

Columbia LL.M. Programの締め切り日が発表されました。
https://www.law.columbia.edu/admissions/graduate-legal-studies/llm-program

LL.M. Application Deadlines 
Early Review:
November 1, 2019

Regular Review:
December 18, 2019 

ロースクール側が求めるTOEFLの要求スコアと自身のスコアとの伸び具合等も考慮しながら出願準備を決めてください。「とりあえずEarly Review Roundに出しておく」という対方法はお勧め致しません。

出願書類**に関する注意事項を下記urlにてご確認いただけます。
https://www.law.columbia.edu/admissions/graduate-legal-studies/llm-program/application-instructions/application-components

**出願書類
1) Personal Statement:内容に加え、枚数、文字の大きさもご確認ください。
2) Resume / CV
3) Transcripts and Diplomas
4) Statement of Rank:出身大学(院)等で発行されない場合の対応方法をご確認ください。
5) Letter or Recommendation:推薦者のメールアドレスに関して注意事項欄をご確認ください。
6) TOEFL Score

Once submitted, all application materials become the property of LSAC and/or the Office of Graduate Legal Studies and as such will not be returned to you under any circumstances.

【2020年9月入学用出願締め切り日】Harvard Law School, LL.M. Program

Harvard Law School (HLS) LL.M. Programの出願締め切り日が発表されました。

The application deadline for the LL.M. class beginning in August 2020 is December 1, 2019, at 11:59 p.m., U.S. Eastern time.
https://hls.harvard.edu/dept/graduate-program/llm-application-deadlines-and-materials/

In addition to submitting the online LL.M. application by the deadline, applicants must make sure that any other required documents (e.g., transcripts, TOEFL results) are sent out in time for delivery to our office on or before the deadline. Please note that the application deadline will be strictly observed. It is your responsibility to make certain that all required materials reach the Graduate Program office by the deadline.

数多くのアメリカLL.M.プログラムがLaw School Admissions Council (LSAC)の出願代行サービスの理由を義務づける中、同校は独自の出願方式(HLS専用の願書フォームの使用)を実施してきました(LSAC経由で出願できるものの、推薦状はLSAC経由で提出できない**といった多少手間暇がかかります)。自分の手や周囲の推薦者の手を煩わせないためにも、HLSへ出願する際は同校の願書フォーマット(推薦状フォームも含む)を使用して出願することをお勧めします。

**Please note that we do not accept letters of recommendation submitted through LSAC.
https://hls.harvard.edu/dept/graduate-program/llm-admissions-faq/#faq-4-1

We strongly recommend that you have your transcripts/diplomas and TOEFL score to LSAC no later than the beginning of October to ensure we receive your LSAC report by the December 1 deadline.
https://hls.harvard.edu/dept/graduate-program/llm-admissions-faq/#faq-4-1
Harvardへの出願時のみにて適用されるだけでなく、他の出願予定校の締め切り日で12月上旬から中旬の間で締め切りを設定するLL.M.プログラムもあると思います。そうした学校への出願計画を考える上でも、出願関連書類をLSACへ提出するタイミングを見極める参考情報として活用されてはいかがでしょうか。

また、上記では12/1と締め切り日を設定していますが、昨年用のApplication Form内では以下の記述が見られました。
====================
Your application and all supporting documents must be received by the Harvard Law School Graduate Program office no later than 11:59 p.m. U.S. Eastern time on December 1 (and preferably by November 15).
https://hls.harvard.edu/content/uploads/2018/09/Sample-LLM-Application-2019.pdf
====================
11/15と12/1ではわずか2週間程度の違いですが、”preferably”という表現を用いてるだけに実質上のEarly Admissions Deadlineの役割を果たしていました。現時点では2020年入学用の締め切りは12/1で11月に関する記述内容は見当たりませんが、9月の時点で2020年出願用の願書を改めて一読する際はDecember 1 (and preferably November 15)の記述があるか否かを確認しましょう。

 

【2019年度 LL.M. 入学用出願締め切り日】: Boston University

Boston University, LL.M. programの出願締め切り日が発表されました。

International Applicants*: April 15, 2019

*Please note: the LLM in American Law is open to foreign-trained attorneys only and is only available for Fall entry

■インタビュー
The Program Director and/or Assistant/Associate Director interviews all qualified applicants by phone (or in person, if practical). The appropriate graduate program office will notify applicants of the time and date of scheduled interviews.

  • Two Letters of Recommendation: You must submit two letters of recommendation written by individuals who are well acquainted with your academic or professional abilities and are able to provide a thoughtful, thorough and candid assessment of your academic ability and potential for success in graduate level law study. BU Law requires at least two – but accepts up to four – letters of recommendation. We welcome letters from former law professors, as well as from employment supervisors and other professional colleagues who have direct knowledge of your skills and attributes. If these letters are not in English, a certified English translation must also be submitted.                                                            こちらに記載されているように、翻訳証明書の提出は忘れないでください。2通の推薦状の文体や英語表現が似ているが「翻訳証明書が提出されていない」となると、「同一人物が推薦状を書いたのでは?」とアドミッション側に考えさせてしまうため、各校の出願用インストラクションはしっかりとご確認ください。
  • Personal Statement of Interest: A carefully worded and detailed personal statement of interest is an important part of your application. You should discuss your personal and professional reasons for pursuing the LLM degree. You should also include an explanation of your study interests and their relation to your previous study, employment experiences and professional goals.                          ここでのgoalsとは、Short-term およびlong-term goalを指します。
  • Curriculum Vitae: Please include your curriculum vitae as a separate item, not as a substitute for your personal statement.                        略称でCVと呼ばれ場合もありますが、アプリカントの皆さんが作成している英文レジュメです。

Applicants are occasionally admitted to the program on the condition that they fulfill other requirements in order to improve their English skills or meet our test score minimums. We may accept an applicant provisionally on the condition that he or she successfully complete BU’s summer program in Legal English at CELOP or submit other proof of testing or intensive ESL course completion. For information on CELOP, please visit CELOP’s website.

上記にも書いてありますが、Minimum scoreに達成していないため、出願を見送る(諦める)といったアクションを取られることなく、その時の状況を踏まえてご相談ください。

【2019年度 LL.M. 入学用エッセイ課題】: Duke University

Duke, LL.M.の出願書類関連情報を確認していきたいと思います。
https://law.duke.edu/internat/appinformation/#details

Resume

Please submit a resume with your application. If you apply via LSAC, use the electronic attachment.

Personal Statement

You are required to submit a 2-5 page personal statement. If you apply via LSAC, use the electronic attachment. The personal statement should include your professional and educational experience, special areas of interest, previous overseas experience, and any other information that supports your application. Please let us know if there is a special reason for applying to Duke Law School such as family members who are alumni or who are living in North Carolina, or a spouse or significant other with admission to a nearby school or who is also applying to the LLM program.

>>>最長5ページと記されていますが、2から3ページの長さで書き纏めることができる内容を無理やり長くする必要はありません。Duke LL.M.用のPersonal Statementにどういったコンテンツを使うのか?、そしてそのためにも早めに自己分析作業等に着手していきましょう。

Recommendation Letters

A minimum of two letters of recommendation should be submitted on behalf of the LLM applicant. Such letters should not be from relatives or close family friends. The letters should explain the relationship of the writer to the applicant. At least one letter should be from a faculty member well acquainted with the applicant’s academic ability.

If applying electronically, LSAC offers an LOR service for letters of recommendations.  Please follow the instructions on the LSAC site.

If application materials are being submitted in hard copy format directly to the International Studies office, recommendation letter forms must be included and are available for download at our site. Your signature on the recommendation form indicates you have waived your right to the material contained in the recommendation letter and should be included with all letters submitted on your behalf.  Referees may also submit recommendation letters directly to the International Studies office. We prefer recommendation letters in hard copy format but will accept electronic letters if a referee is unable to submit the letters prior to the application deadline.

ご存知のように推薦状の提出方法は、①LSAC経由、もしくは②各スクール独自のフォーマット(各校のHPよりダウンロードします)となります。しかしながら、②の提出方法は一部のスクール(例:Harvard, Michiganなど)に限られますのでご注意ください。

【2019年度 LL.M. 入学用出願締め切り日】: Duke University

Duke University, LL.M.プログラムの出願締め切り日が発表されました。
https://law.duke.edu/internat/appinformation/

Applicants to Duke Law’s LLM, SJD and exchange programs may begin submitting applications for the 2019-2020 academic year on September 1, 2018. The application deadline for the LLM program is January 20, 2019.

Although the application deadline is January 20 for the LLM program and March 20 for the SJD program, candidates are encouraged to apply as early as possible. Admission decisions are made on a rolling basis beginning in January. A rolling basis means that applications are considered until the class is full. Admission to the LLM and SJD program is for fall semester only.

他校のアドミッション方式でも、Dukeと同様に上記”A rolling basis”が採用されるケースもあります。こうした情報は出願戦略を考えていく上で参考にしてください。

Our preferred method for submitting application materials is electronically via LSAC (Law School Admission Council). Please visit the LSAC website for account access or to create a new account. Complete application instructions are available on the electronic application for the Duke Law LLM program.

You may also submit your application materials directly to our office. The application checklist allows you to investigate the options available for both application types. Please note that you must omit the box number from the address if you plan to send application materials via courier (DHL, FedEx, etc.) to the International Admissions office.  Please note that we do not accept applications materials submitted via e-mail.

【2019年度 LL.M. エッセイ課題】New York University

先日の投稿では出願締め切り日を共有しましたが、本日はNYU LL.M.のエッセイ課題などに関する情報を確認したいと思います。
http://www.law.nyu.edu/graduateadmissions/application-required-materials

Personal Statement & Resume

All applicants must electronically attach to the online application a brief personal statement of no more than 500 words. Applicants may describe their professional interests and goals, or they may use the statement to describe aspects of themselves and/or their work that are not apparent from their other application materials. Applicants should include their reasons and qualifications for applying to a particular program or specialization.

  1. 同校のエッセイ課題は毎年500 wordsで出題されております。同校のように字数を制限しないスクールもあることから、まずは制限を設けていないスクールの(エッセイ)課題から着手することをお勧めします。
  2. GoalsはShort-termとlong-term goalの内容を含みます。
  3. このキャリア開発時期にLL.M.を取得したいと思う理由
  4. Qualificationsを伝えるためにも、これまでの(主には)仕事上の実績について述べます。

All applicants must also electronically attach a résumé or curriculum vitae to their application. This document may be one to two pages in length, and should account for all education and work experience, as well as any period of more than three months not spent in school or employed. Publications, presentations, or other career-related information may also be included.

1.レジュメは必ずしも1枚とは限りませんので、まずはレジュメに記す実績等を整理しましょう。
2. LL.M.アプリカントの中には、Publicationに関する実績をお持ちの方もいます。自らの専門性をアピールする機会ですので、レジュメコンテンツとして活用していきましょう。

Due to the large number of LLM applications that we receive each year, the Committee on Graduate Admissions is not able to read or consider writing samples, articles, or research papers submitted with applications. Instead, publications, academic presentations and the like may be noted on an applicant’s résumé or curriculum vitae for consideration by the Committee.

◆上述にもあるように、追加書類等の提出は控えてください。

Any additional information an applicant would like to share with the Committee on Graduate Admissions that is not already present in the other application materials may be electronically attached as an addendum to the online application.

◆追加書類等の提出は行わない代わりに、オンライン願書の特記事項欄(addendum)を活用し、必要に応じて、レジュメ、成績表、エッセイ、推薦状にて言及されていない情報を述べてください。